• Government 1.0
    • Government 1.0 (or eGovernment) refers to the utilization of ICTs and other web-based telecommunication technologies for improving or enhancing on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery in the public services, towards citizens and enterprises.
    • Electronic government (e-government) aims to increase the convenience and accessibility of government services and information to citizens, businesses, and governmental units.
    • Electronic Government (eGovernment) refers to the processes and structures pertinent to the electronic delivery of government services to the public.
    • E-government is the use of any information and communications technology (ICT) based initiative to improve government service delivery and internal processes.
    • Electronic government (eGovernment) refers to the provision of government services through the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs).
    • eGovernment is a permanent commitment by the government to improve the nature of the relationship between the private citizen and the public sector through enhanced, cost-effective, and efficient delivery of services, information, and knowledge.
    • eGovernment involves the automation or computerization of existing paper-based procedures in order to prompt new styles of leadership, new ways of debating and deciding strategies, new ways of transacting business, new ways of listening to citizens and communities and new ways of organizing and delivering information.
    • eGovernment involves using information technology, specifically the internet, to deliver government information, and in some cases, services, to citizens, businesses, and other government agencies.
    Karpchuk, N. P. (2017). International Information: Guidelines.
    Carter, L., & Bélanger, F. (2005). The utilization of e‐government services: citizen trust, innovation and acceptance factors. Information systems journal, 15(1), 5-25.
    Okot-Uma, R. W. O., & London, C. S. (2000). Electronic governance: re-inventing good governance. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
    Maumbe, B. M., Owei, V., & Alexander, H. (2008). Questioning the pace and pathway of e-government development in Africa: A case study of South Africa’s Cape Gateway project. Government Information Quarterly, 25(4), 757-777.
    El-Kiki, T., Lawrence, E., & Steele, R. (2005). A management framework for mobile government services. Proceedings of CollECTeR, Sydney, Australia, 2009-4.
    Chen, Y. N., Chen, H. M., Huang, W., & Ching, R. K. (2006). E-government strategies in developed and developing countries: An implementation framework and case study. Journal of Global Information Management, 14(1), 23.
    Basu, S. (2004). E‐government and developing countries: an overview. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 18(1), 109-132
    Maumbe, B. M., Owei, V., & Alexander, H. (2008). Questioning the pace and pathway of e-government development in Africa: A case study of South Africa’s Cape Gateway project. Government Information Quarterly, 25(4), 757-777.
  • Government 2.0
    • Government 2.0—the government’s merger with Web 2.0 is a new notion for describing the current use of Web 2.0 technologies to socialize government services, processes, and data.
    • The term e-government 2.0 points to the specific applications of social networks and Web 2.0 in the sphere of public services.
    • E-government 2.0 refers to the inclusions in government of features like social web, user-generated content, the delivery and use of open data, and network effects through more user engage-ment.
    • Government 2.0 refers to the use of the collaborative tools and approaches of Web 2.0 to offer an unprecedented opportunity to achieve more open, accountable, responsive and efficient government.
    • Government 2.0 refers to a government that uses interactive communication technologies to transform connections between government and citizens into increasingly open, social and user-cen-tered relations.
    • The use Web 2.0 applications have the potential to generate greater interaction between different social actors, and as a consequence, greater citizen participation in government processes, have re-cently been termed ‘Government 2.0’.
    • Government 2.0 is an emerging area in both practice and research. The term emerged in blogs and technology news, and is related to the use of web 2.0 technologies in the public sector
    Di Maio, A. (2009). Government 2.0: Gartner Definition. Industry Research.
    Baumgarten, J., & Chui, M. (2009). E-government 2.0. McKinsey Quarterly, 4(2), 26-31.
    Boughzala, I., Janssen, M., & Assar, S. (2015). E-Government 2.0: Back to Reality, a 2.0 Application to Vet. In Case Studies in e-Government 2.0 (pp. 1-14). Springer, Cham.
    Australian Government 2.0 Taskforce (AGT). (2009). Department of finance and deregulation: Engage: Getting on with Government 2.0. http://www.finance.gov.au/publications/gov20taskforcereport/. Accessed 9 Apr 2014.
    Meijer, A., Koops, B., Pieterson, W., Overman, S. P., & Tije, S. T. (2012). Government 2.0: Key challenges to its realization.
    Sandoval-Almazán, R., Gil-García, J. R., Luna-Reyes, L. F., Luna, D. E., & Díaz-Murillo, G. (2011). The use of Web 2.0 on Mexican state websites: A three-year assessment. Electronic Journal of E-government, 9(2), 107-121./td>
    Johannessen, M. R. (2010, August). Different theory, different result: Examining how different theories lead to different insights in government 2.0 research. In Proceedings of the 1st Scandinavian Conference of Information Systems and the 33rd Information Systems Research in Scandinavia (IRIS) Seminar(pp. 20-24).
  • Government 3.0
    • Government 3.0 refers to the use of dis-ruptive ICTs (blockchain, big data and artificial intelligence technologies) in combination with established ICTs (distributed technologies for data storage and service delivery) and the wisdom of crowd (crowd-sourcing and co-creation) towards data-driven and evidence-based decision and policy making.
    • Government 3.0 can mean a Semantic Web-based government that personalizes all government services according to the conditions and preferences of each individual.
    Pereira, G. V. et al., 2018. Scientific foundations training and entrepreneurship activities in the domain of ICT-enabled Governance. Delft, s.n.
    National Information Society Agency [NIA] (2013). Government 3.0: Dreaming New Korea. Available from http://www.gov30.kr. [Korean]